Photographer: Russ Ottens Affiliation:University of Georgia Source:www.bugwood.org Copyright: CC BY-NC 3.0
Adult Description: Adult red banded stink bugs (Piezodorus guildinii) are bright green in color. The pronotum has a horizontal band of red at the posterior margin. Its head is small and triangular with greenish antennas. Adults live two to three months with 5 to 8 generations occurring in a single growing season.
Larva Description: Early instars are very round with the posterior portion of the abdomen being black and the distal portion of the abdomen being red. Amongst the red and black portions are three white lines that are the full length of the dorsal side of the abdomen. In later instars, the black, red and white lines disappear and are replaced with bright green except the small patch of horizontal black lines located on the distal portion of the abdomen where the wings will eventually be.
Host Plant:Soybeans, other legumes, alfalfa, cotton and common weeds
The red banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii, feeds on several species of wild and cultivated plants, mostly legumes, in the native land of Brazil. Their love for legumes has been transferred over into the United States, with them being major pests of soybean crops but also other row crops such as cotton. It has been found in several states, including Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee and Texas. In Louisiana, economic infestations have been reported, and management challenges have become significant. Because of their vast host range and high mobility, stink bugs are difficult to control. In the southern states, green stink bug, Nezara viridula, and the non-native red banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii, cause most of the economic damage. The red banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is native of the Caribbean basin and often invades the southern U.S. states, but reports of its occurrence in the soybean have been sporadic.
The female lays 15–20 eggs per two rows parallel on pods or leaves and stems. The eggs are barrel shaped and are black or dark grey with a whitish transverse band. Hatching occurs generally within 7 days, remaining in the emerged nymphal state for 21 to 30 days, passing in this period through five stages, the first of which lasts 4 days. In the two first stages bugs are gregarious and do not cause harm, but after the third that they begin to feed intensively and to disperse. Red banded stink bugs are more mobile than the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. Piezodorus guildinii females disperse more than males and wind can influence their dispersal, making this invasive insect more of a threat than the native stinkbug.
This pest species is from Brazil and Caribbean basin countries which allow it to easily invade the southern United States. The red-banded stink bug was found in Florida by 2000 then Louisiana and Texas by 2004, Arkansas in 2005 and north up to Missouri in 2010. The increasing prominence of Piezodorus guildinii may be linked to changing production practices in Texas, Louisiana and Arkansas. In addition, the widespread adoption of transgenic cotton and subsequent reduction in insecticide applications also may have contributed to increasing concerns about stinkbugs.
Brazil and countries along the Caribbean basin
U.S. Habitat: Red banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii, is an important pest of soybean, Glycine max, in South America and now several states in the United States. The ability to utilize numerous host plants allows early season reproduction before the red banded stink bug moves into soybeans at the preferred stage of plant growth. Seed quality and yield are reduced because red banded stink bug prefer to feed on fruiting structures. Application of insecticide to protect soybean yield can reduce grower profits. However, with soybeans being a necessary and large crop in the United States the threat of this stinkbug could remain continuous.
U.S. Present: AL, LA, MO, MS, GA TN, TX
Until recently, acephate-based pesticides were the only product recommended for control of Piezodorus guildinii in some southern states. Reliance on this single product for control for more than 5 years has raised concerns about resistance development considering that multiple applications of acephate per season are required to control this pest. Studies have been conducted to see the level of susceptibility of the red-banded stink bug in both Brazil and the United States. Populations in Brazil were more susceptible to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides than populations in the United States, specifically Louisiana. These results are unexpected because Brazil has had a longer history of controlling the stinkbug populations. Fortunately,Piezodorus guildinii is susceptible to several kinds of insecticides, but for populations in the United States, higher concentrations of insecticides are needed.
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